The Balfour Declaration

 For a much more detailed paper on on the backgound and negotiations that led to the Balfour Declaration see the extract from the Companion Guide on the Declaration.

The Balfour Declaration

balfour-declaration pic and letter

 

 

 

 

 

 

His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

The Declaration was the fruit of twelve months’ negotiations between a group of British Zionist leaders and British government officials, the latter guided by a remarkable mixture of imperial Realpolitik and ‘Restorationist’ feelings. By 1914, the persuasive, Russian-born president of the English Zionist Federation, Chaim Weizmann, was on familiar terms with half the British cabinet. But it was only after David Lloyd George became Prime Minister at the end of 1916 that the Zionist cause made real headway.

In addition to Lloyd George, some other cabinet members supported the Zionist vision, including Balfour (Foreign Secretary), Lord Milner (former imperial consul in Africa) – as well as a large group of Foreign Office officials and government advisors which included Sir Mark Sykes. They saw substantial advantages in the creation of a pro-British Jewish Palestine in a post-war Empire.

Underpinning their strategic concerns was a romantic/biblical appeal of the return of the Jews to Zion, part of their evangelical Victorian upbringing, although many of them were agnostic. They had an exaggerated view of the wealth and influence of World Jewry and hoped that Britain’s official adoption of Zionism would increase support for the Allied cause in the USA and Russia. However America had already joined the war in April 1917 and the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in October 1917 in effect meant Russia was no longer a useful ally.

Cabinet members Lord Curzon and Edwin Montagu (Secretary of State for India and a non-Zionist Jew) opposed the Declaration, but were out-voted. The House of Commons was not consulted.

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