Timeline

Early History
Before Common Era
1279-1213 BCE :  Rameses ll reorganises the Levant.  ‘Key strategic cities like Beth Shan in the north and Gaza in the south were strengthened, while others were allowed to decline. Many  people were made homeless and migrated to the Judean hill country where they established small farming settlements. These  dispossessed Canaanites, known to the Egyptians as Hapiru (Hebrews), formed the basis of what was to become Israel.’ (description from the British Museum)
1210 BCE : The first mention of the term Israel on the Egyptian Merneptah stele.
ca. 888-800 BCE :  Omride dynasty rules Israel, and for a short time Judah, from Samaria  King Omri builds his capital in Samaria.
840 BCE :  The Mesha Stele records the Moabite king destroying Omri’s son, throwing off the yoke of Israel and restoring Moab.
ca. 800 BCE :  After the Omride dynasty, Israel splits into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah with its capital in Jerusalem.
720 BCE :  Israel taken over by the Assyrians. Judah develops
583 BCE :  Judah is destroyed by the Babylonians –  captivity/exile in Babylon.
ca. 538 BCE :  Persia conquers Babylon and permits exiled Jews who want to, to return to Jerusalem (“Decree of Cyrus”). Much of the Hebrew Bible written during or after the return from Babylon.
332 BCE :  Greeks conquer the region.
167 BCE :  Jews establish a semi autonomous Judea under the Seleucids.
63 BCE :  Romans establish control over Judea and Samaria.
ca. 4 BCE :  Jesus is born. He is crucified thirty-three years later after a ministry of three years. Christian churches are established throughout the eastern Roman Empire.
 
Early History
Common Era
70 :  A Jewish revolt against Rome is put down and the Temple is destroyed.
135 :  Romans suppress a Jewish revolt. The Romans name the province Syria Palaestina. Jews move North into Galilee, being banned from Jerusalem.
ca. 325 :  Empress Helena starts pilgrimages to Palestine.
ca. 570 :  The Prophet Muhammad is born in Mecca, establishes the Islamic faith, unites the Arabian Peninsula, and dies in 632. Arabic rule and faith spread rapidly throughout Syria Palaestina, Persia, and Egypt.
711 :  Muslims take control in Spain. The Umayyad Caliphate peaks around 1000CE. Regarded as the Golden Age of Jewish Culture in Spain.
1099 :  The first Crusaders capture Jerusalem and establish Christian rule over Palestine. This is also the beginning of Jews being expelled from many countries in Europe.
1187 :  Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, conquers Jerusalem and invites the Jews to return. Except for a fifteen-year interval Muslims control Palestine until the end of World War I.
1290 :  Jews expelled from Britain
1492 :  Remaining Jews and Muslims expelled from Spain by Christians and the Spanish Inquisition.
1516 :  The Ottoman Turks take Syria, Palestine, and then Egypt.
1656 :  Start of the readmission of Jews to Britain.

19th Century into early 20th Century
Early 19 Century :  Literal reading of the bible develops influenced by John Nelson Darby, Edward Irvine and Prophetic Conferences such as those in Albury.
1840 :  Shaftesbury takes an advert in the Times: RESTORATION OF THE JEWS. A memorandum has been addressed to the Protestant monarchs of Europe on the subject of the restoration of the Jewish people to the land of Palestine.
1861 :  The French establish Lebanon as an autonomous district within Syria, under Christian leadership.
1865 :  Palestine Exploration Fund set up.
1881 :  Assassination of Tsar Alexander ll followed by persecution of Russian Jews: 10,000 Jews expelled from Moscow and 100,000 from Russia.
1882 :  British forces occupy Egypt and remain there until 1955.
1884 :  Hechler, Chaplain to the English embassy in Vienna, publishes ‘The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine’ as a fulfilment of biblical prophecy.
1894 :  The Dreyfus Affair in which Captain Alfred Dreyfus is convicted for treason (falsely) and imprisoned on Devils Island. Freed in 1899 but not exonerated until 1906
1896 :  Publication of The Jewish State by Theodor Herzl. Hechler Introduces Herzl to the Kaiser other German leaders and the British political establishment.
1897 :  First International Zionist Congress in Basel. Two Rabbis sent to Palestine report “The bride is beautiful but she is married to another man”
1905/6 :  Pogroms and expulsion of 200,000 Jews from Russia
1906 :  Balfour writes to his niece after meeting Weizmann. “…he could see no political problems in obtaining Palestine, only economic ones.”

1915-1948
1915 :  Sir Henry McMahon offers Sharif Hussein support for an Arab State excluding areas West of Damascus, if he helps the British against the Ottomans. [See Related Page]
1916 :  The secret Sykes-Picot agreement divides the Middle East between France and Britain . [See Related Page]
1917 :  Great Britain, during World War I, issues the Balfour Declaration, promising a Jewish national home in Palestine: “it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. [See Related Page]”
1918 :  Declaration to the Seven, Britain defines policy that Arab governments liberated by the action of Arab armies would be based on the principle of “consent of the governed”.
November 1918 :  The Anglo-French declaration implies that the indigenous populations, previously under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, would be granted self determination. [See Related Page]
1920-21 :  Arab anti Jewish riots in Palestine.
1922 :  After the Ottoman Empire is defeated in World War I, the League of Nations confirms the British mandates over Iraq and Palestine, and a French mandate over Syria and Lebanon. Transjordan is separated from the Palestine Mandate and becomes an autonomous kingdom.[See Related Page]
1926 :  The Rutenberg concession: British High Commissioner granted the Jewish owned Palestine Electricity Corporation, founded by Pinhas Rutenberg, a 70 year concession to utilize the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers’ water for generating electricity. The concession denied Arab farmers the right to use the Yarmouk and Jordan Rivers without permission. Permission was never granted.
1929 :  Arab riots in Jerusalem, Hebron and Safed.
1936 :  Palestinian Arabs demand a halt to Jewish immigration and a ban on land sales to Jews. British troops attempt to assert control, but violence continues. Britain hangs or imprisons most of the Arab leadership. The Peel Commission recommends partition of Palestine between Arabs and Jews.
1939 :  Britain announces severe restrictions on Jewish immigration and land purchases in Palestine. Violence erupts from Jewish militants.
1942-47 :  France funds Jewish extremist organisations, Stern Gang and Irgun, against the British.
1944 :  Murder of Lord Moyne by the Stern Gang.
1947 :  Britain lets the United Nations decide what to do about Palestine, which is partitioned into Jewish, Arab, and international areas (Jerusalem and Bethlehem). Fifty-five percent of the territory is allocated to the Jewish state.
 :  Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan are now independent states.
 Late 1947 :
Mass expulsion of Palestinians by Jews commences.
April 1948 :  Massacre of Deir Yassin.
May 1948 :  The British mandate over Palestine terminates.
 :  Israel declares independence and Truman recognises Israel. Count Bernadotte appointed as UN mediator.
June 1948 :  Count Bernadotte assassinated by Jewish extremist Stern Gang.
 :  Mass expulsion of Palestinians continues.
 :  Arab armies attack and Israel prevails.
December 1948 :  U.N. General Assembly Resolution 194 establishes a conciliation commission and asserts that refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace should be allowed to do so, that compensation should be paid to others, and that free access to the holy places should be assured.

Post-British withdrawal
1949 :  Armistice agreements with the Arabs allow Israel to gain more land (77 percent of Palestine). Egypt occupies the Gaza Strip. Transjordan, renamed Jordan, controls what is left of the west bank of the Jordan River, including Old Jerusalem.
1950 :  Jordan annexes this territory.
1956 :  Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal, and Israel joins Britain and France in occupying the canal area. Under international pressure all foreign forces withdraw from Egyptian territories by the next year. U.N. forces are assigned to patrol strategic areas of the Sinai.
1964 :  The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is established, committed to wage a battle to liberate the homeland of the Palestinian people.
1967 :  Egypt blockades the Straits of Tiran, and Arab forces make menacing moves. Israel launches preemptive attacks on Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and then Jordan, and within six days occupies the Golan Heights, Gaza, the Sinai, and the West Bank, including Jerusalem. Six months later, U.N. Security Council Resolution 242 is passed, confirming the inadmissibility of the acquisition of land by force and calling for Israel’s withdrawal from occupied territories, the right of all states in the region to live in peace within secure and recognized borders, and a just solution to the refugee problem.
1973 :  Egypt and Syria attack Israeli forces in the Sinai and Golan Heights. This conflict becomes known as the Yom Kippur war. After sixteen days of war, U.N. Resolution 338 is passed, confirming Resolution 242 and calling for international peace talks. Various disengagement agreements follow.
1974 :  The Arab summit at Rabat in Morocco unanimously proclaims the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. Israel agrees to withdraw from Syrian territory, except for control of the Golan Heights.
1975 :  Civil war erupts in Lebanon. With approval from the international community the following year, Syria sends troops to establish order.
1977 :  Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat visits Jerusalem and outlines Arab demands to the Israeli Knesset. Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin makes a return visit to Ismailia, with no progress toward peace.
1978 :  The Camp David Accords are approved by Israel and Egypt, confirming Israel’s compliance with U.N. Resolution 242, withdrawal of political and military forces from the West Bank and Gaza, and full autonomy for Palestinians. The Accords outline a peace agreement between Israel and Egypt and other Arab neighbors. The Accords are rejected by the Arabs at the Baghdad summit, and Egypt is isolated.
1979 :  A peace treaty is signed between Israel and Egypt, guaranteeing withdrawal of Israel from the Sinai, normal diplomatic relations, and Israel’s access to the Suez Canal.
1981 :  Israel escalates establishment of settlements on Palestinian territory. Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat is assassinated.
1982 :  In response to terrorist attacks across Lebanon’s border, Israeli troops move into Lebanon, seeking to destroy PLO forces there. The militant Lebanese organization known as Hezbollah is established. Subsequent actions by the Israelis in Lebanon draw international criticism.
1985 :  Israel partially removes its forces from Lebanon.
1987 :  A Palestinian intifada (uprising) erupts, and Israel responds to the violence with harsh reprisals. The militant Palestinian organization known as Hamas is established.
1988 :  Jordan cedes its rights in the West Bank and East Jerusalem to the PLO. PLO head Yasir Arafat acknowledges Israel’s right to exist and renounces violence. The U.S. and the PLO initiate dialogue.
1991 :  The Persian Gulf War ejects Iraqi forces that have invaded Kuwait. Many Palestinian exiles move to Jordan. A Middle East peace conference, focusing on Arab-Israeli relations, is convened in Madrid.
1993 :  Israel and the PLO conclude a peace agreement in Oslo with mutual recognition and a five-year plan to resolve all remaining differences. Militant Palestinians and right-wing Israelis begin attempts to undermine the agreement.
1994 :  The Palestinian National Authority is established.
 :  Israel and Jordan sign a comprehensive peace agreement.
 :  Massacre of Palestinians praying at the Hebron mosque.
1995 :  Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by an Israeli right-wing religious fanatic. This setback to the peace process is exacerbated by violent attacks from Palestinian groups opposed to the Oslo Agreement.
1996 :  Palestinians elect Yasir Arafat as president and elect the members of a legislative council. Israelis return the Likud Party to power, which stalls the Oslo process.
1998 :  The Wye River Memorandum is issued after talks between the Israelis and the Palestinians, under U.S. auspices. An airport is opened in Gaza, with flights to Arab nations.
2000 :  Israeli forces are withdrawn from Lebanon except for a disputed area, Shebaa Farms.
 :  US President Bill Clinton leads the second Camp David summit.
 :  Second Intifada sparked by Ariel Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount / Haram al-Sharif.
2001 :  Ariel Sharon is elected prime minister of Israel, committed to rejection of the Oslo peace agreement and an emphasis on national security. The Gaza airport runway is bulldozed.
2002 :  An Arab League summit meeting endorses a Saudi peace plan based on U.N. Resolutions 242 and 338. Suicide bombings provoke strong Israeli response. Sharon blames Arafat for the violence and confines him in his Ramallah office. Israel begins building a separation barrier within the West Bank.
2003 :  The Quartet Group (the United States, United Nations, European Union, and Russia) agree on a “road map for peace.” Palestinians pledge full support, but Israel rejects key points. Violence continues, and the security barrier in the ‘West Bank draws international criticism for undermining the peace process. An unofficial peace agreement negotiated by Israelis and Palestinians is released with extensive international support as the Geneva Initiative.
2004 :  Yasir Arafat dies.
2005 :  Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) is elected president of the Palestinian National Authority.
 :  Israel unilaterally evacuates its settlements from the Gaza Strip and four from the West Bank.
January 2006 :  Ariel Sharon suffers a massive stroke. The Palestinians elect a new government, with Hamas winning a plurality of votes but a majority of parliamentary seats. Israel and the United States isolate Palestine, cutting off funds.
March-August 2006 :  Ehud Olmert becomes Israel’s prime minister, promising that the dividing wall will, in effect, be the new Israeli-West Bank border. Hamas and Hezbollah militants capture Israeli soldiers, and Israeli forces attack Gaza and Lebanon. Hezbollah missiles strike northern Israel. The United Nations approves Resolution 1701, establishing a fragile cease-fire.
2008 :  Operation Cast Lead: Israel attacks Gaza and kills over 1200 Palestinians.
2011 :  Palestine elected as member of Unesco by UN.

 

This timeline is based on the timeline in Jimmy Carter’s ‘Palestine peace not apartheid’ with many additions and links to further information such as Wikipedia.

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